What causes a venous ulcer?
When suffering from chronic venous insufficiency, the vein wall becomes stretched and weakens and the valves do not close. This starts the cascade of reflux and pooling which does not correct itself and only continues to worsen over time (another cause of valve incompetency is a post-traumatic damage). In consequence, the small nutritional vessels of the skin are damaged causing edema, inflammation, hardening of the tissue and malnutrition of the skin. On these preconditions, a venous ulcer may easily develop.
Venous leg ulcers are often chronic and difficult to heal. They often appear on the inside of the leg (medial) above the ankle. They are shallow and can be painful. Swelling in the lower leg often occurs. There is often brownish discoloration of the skin due to the leakage of the iron-containing pigment in red blood cells (hemosiderin) into the tissue. The wound itself is often irregular and there may be weeping discharge as the tissue fluid seeps from the wound. There may also be indications of infection. Caution regarding arterial ulcers: approximately 10-20% of ulcers are arterial ulcers. In addition to venous diagnostics with duplex ultrasound, the arterial circulation should be controlled in each ulcer patient.
What is the treatment for a venous leg ulcer?
The primary treatment includes controlling a possible infection and healing the wound. A wound heals slowly and may take many months, depending of its size and other risk factors. Managing pain and minimizing the edema as well as protecting the healthy skin are also important during treatment. Steps to improve venous function should be taken. Traditionally, short-stretch compression bandages are worn initially until secretion has reduced. In most of the small and medium size ulcers the compression can be continued with a compression stocking or a special ulcer stocking system (SIGVARIS UlcerX) at 30-40 mmHg until healing. Your physician will be able to assess your condition and prescribe the most effective treatment.
Nearly 80% of venous leg ulcers can be healed with good wound management. The recurrence rate of a venous ulcer after treatment can vary depending on the type of procedure and patient compliance. Studies show that recurrence can range as low as 26-28% but it also reported as high as 69%.² Once the leg ulcer has healed, the patient should wear a minimum of 30-40 mmHg SIGVARIS medical graduated compression stocking for life to promote non-recurrence of the ulcer.
Graduated compression stockings are CONTRAINDICATED for severe arterial occlusive disease.
¹ American Journal of Surgery (2002, vol. 183. n2, pp. 132-137 (14 ref.)
² Bryant RA, editor. Acute and Chronic Wounds. St Louis Mosby; 1992, p 164-204
Benefits of compression therapy
- Ease of application promotes compliance as compared to bandaging, which requires medical expertise for application
- Increased healing of venous ulcers
- Reducing recurrence rate of healed venous ulcers
- Successful treatment without compromising wound dressing
- Significantly reduced pain lets the patient rest comfortably.
Leg Ulcer: SIGVARIS solutions
SIGVARIS medical graduated compression stockings play an important role in the healing and maintenance of wound care management. However, previously ulcerated skin is not stable and a wound can reoccur. Daily walks, a healthy diet and weight control are also key in patient caring for a venous leg ulcer.
The SIGVARIS UlcerX - designed with patients in mind
SIGVARIS UlcerX Kit is a dual stocking system. It consists of a low-compression underliner and a 30-40 mmHg overstocking. The underliner is made with a inner layer of cotton and a smooth exterior that allows easy donning of the overstocking. The underliner keeps the wound dressing in place at night, helping the patient to rest comfortably. During daily activities, the overstocking provides the necessary compression needed to heal the venous ulcer. The 30-40 mmHg overstocking is recommended for removal at night, but the low-compression understocking should be worn during sleep or while recumbent.
Scientifically proven results
According to the study "The treatment of venous leg ulcers with a specially designed compression stocking kit" by F. Mariani et al. Phlebologie 2008; 37, 191-197, September 2008, UlcerX Kit therapy solution is the proven superior treatment choice for the successful healing of venous ulcers:
- Complete wound closure achievement: 96,2% with UlcerX kit as compared to 70% with traditional bandages.
- Ulcers with diameter of up to approximately 4cm healed twice as fast with the UlcerX Kit compared to bandages; larger ulces (>4cm) healed as rapidly with the UlcerX Kit as with bandages.
- Reported pain at night/morning was absent with the UlcerX Kit group, but reported respectively by 40% / 20% in the bandage group